Tel.: (+998 90) 999-13-31

History of Uzbekistan

Uzbekistan is the ‘land of the Uzbeks', forms the very centre of ex-Soviet Central Asia, for it alone boarders each of the new republics - Kazakhstan to the north, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan to the east and southeast, Turkmenistan to the southwest, as well as Afghanistan to the south. The Uzbeks remain a clear majority in their republic, accounting for over 80 per cent of the total population of 30 million.

Most of its territory of 447,400 square kilometers (roughly the size of Sweden) lies between the two major rivers of Central Asia, the Syr Darya (Jaxartes) and the Amu Darya (Oxus). On the plains of Central Asia there are many cities with hundreds of architectural monuments of different epochs. Among the most famous are Samarqand, Bukhara, Khiva, Shakhrisabz, Termez and Kokand. These cities were the centers of science and the art.

Great architects created palaces, mosques and mausoleums, world famous monuments of ancient architecture remembering Alexander the Great and Chingiz Khan. Here you will see minarets, grandiose Madrassah and mosques, palaces and mausoleums decorated with incredible ceramic tiles, noisy and colorful oriental bazaars, interesting legends, warm hospitality and ancient traditions of local inhabitants.

Alexander the Great

In 334 B.C., Alexander began marching to Asia. Having conquered the Minor Asia, Syria, Phoenicia, Egypt, and Iran Alexander, entered the territory of Central Asia in spring 329, crossing Hindukush Mountains. Bess, the Satrap of Bactria and Sogd, who had accepted the title of King and name of Artakserks, left Bactria and ran to the other side of Amudarya, territory of Sogdiana, after he had known that Alexander had come near. Alexander crossed Amudarya surreptitiously.

Bess could not avoid him because at that time his recent supporters - Spitamen and Datafern - imprisoned him. They sent their messengers to Alexander with offer to send his force to capture Bess. In Nautak (north-western part of Kashkadarya Valley) Alexander conquered several fortresses. Having left his garrison in Marakand, he took a tour to the Land of Saks, Syrdarya. On their way to Marakand, the Macedonians had faced tough resistance of local population - the Usturshan highlanders.

Alexander was hardly wounded. The "riverside barbarians" began to revolt from back with defeating the Macedonian garrisons. At the same time, Sogdians led by Spitamen began to revolt. The Sogdians adjoined Baktrians. Spitamen had stood openly against Alexander and halted the Macedonian garrison in Marakand. Over the short period of time, on the bank of Syrdarya, the Macedonians built their fortress of Alexandria Distant (Alexandria Eskhata). Alexander hurriedly accomplished peace with Saks and threw his basic forces against Spitamen.

The regular retaliatory actions of Greek-Macedonian armies in the territory of Sogd from autumn 329 till the same period in 328 did not bring results, which Alexander expected. After two years of wearisome and unsuccessful struggle he changed his tactics and went for rapprochement with local elites. Kwint Kursye Roof writes: "He ordered to give cities and lands of those who persisted in insubordination to those barbarians, who have obeyed". As a result, Alexander could involve a significant number of local dynasties and formed military contingencies from Sogdians and Baktrians in his campaign. In autumn 328 the decisive battle between Alexander and Spitamen took place, in which Spitamen had lost and ran to desert, where his recent allies executed him.

Having conquered the mountain fortresses of Horien and Oxiart in Gissar mountains, Alexander married the daughter of Oxiart - Roxanne, thus related with local elite. Having appointed the king of Sogd, Oropiya, one of the representatives of Sogdian elite, who took sides with Alexander, he finished the conquest of Central Asia. Crossing through Amudarya, in the very summer of 327, he passed through Hindukush and began his famous Indian campaign.

The state of selevkides

After the death of Spitamen and the consensus with Sogdian-Baktrian crest in 327 BC, Central Asia had become a part of the Great Empire of the Alexander the Great. The military groups of local elite were included in his army. In 323 BC, when the message about Alexander's death had reached Central Asia, the Greek settlers in Sogd and Bactria gathered group of 20,000 infantrymen and 3,000 cavalrymen, intending to return home.

The commander Perdikka, Alexander's comrade-in-arms, was sent to stop them. He managed to disarm and interrupt the runners. A Sogdian satrap from local grandees, who sympathized with Macedonian retreat, was displaced with Macedonian Phillip, ruling for some time two satrapies - Sogdiana and Bactria. After 315 BC, the Greeks and Macedonians replaced all the appointed local satraps, with exception of Oxiart (Alexander's father-in-law) and Iranian Atropat (Perdikk's father-in-law).

In 312 Selevk, one of the commanders of Alexander, secured Babylon. Soon, he expanded his possessions up to Syrdarya and Ind, and his son - Antioch 1 Soter (born from a marriage of Selevk and Apama, who was Spitamen's daughter) had possessed even more Asian territories, which belonged to Alexander. In Central Asia, only one satrapy, which included Sogdiana and Bactria with Margiana, was formed. Khorezm did not belong to Selevkids. During the period of Achaemenids and Alexander, it kept its independence. Selevk and Antioch paid much attention in strengthening their position in Central Asia. The fortresses and cities, settled by Greeks, had been built actively.

The historical tradition imputes building of 75 new cities to Selevk. In keeping in line with Pleniy, Antiochia behind Yaksart was one of the most distant cities. Supposedly, it was situated in the area of modern Tashkent (Kanka town) or the Ferghana Valley. Till the sixties of 3rd century B.C., in Bactras, there was a selevkian mint, which issued mainly large nominal gold and silver coins. From the beginning of Selevkian Antioch II (261-247 BC) governance, Diodod, his strap in Bactria, issued coins of Selevkian sample, which witnesses of relative autonomy. Bactria, Sogdiana and other areas of Central Asia kept living with their economic life, significantly differing from the western regions of Selevkian kingdom.

Greece and Bactrian Kingdom

In 256 B.C. Parphia, Bactria and Sogdiana separated from Selevkides. In response to this, the Arshakids captured power in Parphia. Sogdiana went under Bactria. In 230 B.C. Sogdiana's satrap (leader) Evtidem overthrew Diodot's descendent. There was a constant struggle between Greece-Bactrian kingdom over the possession of the trading roads.

During 208-209 B.C. Selevkian king Antioch III the Great went on eastern crusade for re-establishment of the past powerful orb of Selevkids. Delivering defeat on Parphs, he has raged fierce attacks against Greece-Bactrian kingdom. As Evtidem's troops suffered much and Antioch besieged capital town of Baktri. A siege lingered for two years. Fighting for Bactri, Evditem cut peace agreement with Antioch, and left all his elephants to him. In the meantime, Evditem's son Demetriy married a Selevkien princess. Defeat delivered to Selevkians by Romans during the fight at Magnesia opened new chance for Greece-Bactrian kingdom in its quest for domains in southern territories - former allies of Selevkids. Around 187 B.C. Demetriy with inheriting father's throne conquered Arahosia and went further to India.

In 171 B.C. during Demetriy's long absence, who was delayed in northern India, due to Bactrian power was conquered by one of his military commanders - Evkratid. Evkratid's kingdom was named "The Kingdom of Thousand Cities". Chinese sources assert that in 165 B.C. yuetji came from the land between two rivers (present Syrdarya and Amudarya). They managed to conquer Bactria. In 155 AD Evkratid was killed by his son during his military campaigns. Greece-Indian kingdom has been formed during these times.

During 141-129 A.D. Greece-Bactrian kingdom collapsed. Presumably, after yuetji's conquest of Bactria King Geliokl kept power in Paropamisads or Arahosia. Two centuries of Hellenic rule world left behind a deep track in the territory of Central Asia. Sogd and Bactria became satraps (municipalities), backed up by Greek - Macedonian military command troops. New cities have been built (Herat and Merv). The Greek was a communication tool for governors and military officials. Greek standard money was issued in the area. The pantheon of Greek lords/gods, Greek literature and Greek theater became accessible to local elites. Synthesis of local and Greek tradition has occurred.


Chinese historian Si Ma-tsyan in his chronicle writes about nomadic state of Kangyuy or Kadzyuy and Kangha, where "traditions were similar to those of yuetji". Ancient authors do not mention about State of Kangha, but it was told in Avesto and Mahabharat, mentioned as Saks, Tohars and Kanghs. Later Chinese chronicles maintained that Kangyuy occupied the entire territory to the north of Amudarya: Bukhara, Shakhrisabz, Kattakurgan region, Tashkent oasis, where governors of Kangyuy were called "Chao-vu".

Probably, "jabru" is the Chinese transcription for "Chao-vu". The second half of 2 century BC and 1 century AD are the period when the state of Kangyuy has seen its peak. The short-lived crisis in Kangyuy, when southern hegemony belonged to yuetji and northeastern part to Hun, Kangyuy re-established its power with the help of weak yuetji government in Bactria. In 2-1 BC Kangyuy issued the currency exchange. The Greek-Bactrian currency types were selected for the issue, as an example. Recovery from the territory of Khorezm, particularly at right side of Janbas-Kala, testifies about the level of material culture. The castle with a 200x170 m size is a 10-11 m high, and was built from the silver bricks.

There is a wide street inside. At the end of street there are remains of buildings, community fire in the oval metal altar. There were many religious beliefs during Kangyuy era: Zoroastrianism, Anahita cult, Mitra cult - embodied on the horse. One of the great achievements of the period in the military field, which was related to the Kangyuy cult was the tactics that later were widespread. They were the metal worn riders on metal covered horses in a tightly lined fight. Rider arms were pommel, lance and long sworn. There is little information on the later history of state of Kangyuy. It is uncertain, whether it was included into Kushan state later. According to Chinese sources, from the beginning AD Kangyuy safekept its independence and conquered yantsay (aorsi-alans) and other tribes (areas).

Kushan Kingdom

Invasion of yuetji in middle 2nd century BC. Initial possessions of yuetji was in the north of Bactria (in the south of modern Uzbekistan and Tajikistan). Kushan Kingdom emerged in the first half or in the middle of the 1st century AD, as a result of rising of yuetji the Kingdom of Kushan, which corresponds with the name of yuetji tribe.

Founder of the kingdom was Kudzula Kadviz I, under whom Kushans conquered the largest part of now Afghanistan and Pakistan. Under his successor, Vina Tok, the considerable part of India was annexed to the territory of Kushan.

In Kanishka's time Kushan Kingdom has seen its highest rise (78-123 AD) The capital has been transferred from Bactria to Peshavar, that stretched the territory to India and Hotan. In Central Asia the northern part of Kushan ownership passed through Ghyssar Mountain Range, in the south of Uzbekistan, where huge borderline walls were erected.

New cities were built with trade relations established with India, China, and Roman Empire. Kushan coins and figures made of bones, made by Kushan masters, were discovered during excavations in Pompeii. The architecture reached its highest level of development in Kushan Kingdom. Particular attention has been paid in construction of palaces and temples. The high artistic work in wall painting and sculptures in the palace of governor's in Halchayan and Buddhist temple in old Termez and Dalvarzintepa are still preserved. The archaeologists revealed bronze vessel, graceful candlesticks, morrows, fine jewelry products by brilliant Kushan masters, concerning high masters of Kushan craftsman. The main economy of Kushan was land irrigation. Fertilizers were used in a bid to increase the harvest of crops.

The cattle breeding evolved in foothills and steppes. The excavations in ancient Termez also revealed inscription in Aramaic writing. Kushan Italic letters characterized in combination with acute-angled, quadrate and rounded form of letters that were wide spread.

In Kanishka's time the Kushan Kingdom accepted the religion of Buddhism, which later remained as a main state religion of Kushans.

However, simultaneously existed Zoroastrianism and also local Central Asian minor beliefs. In the third century the Kushan Empire began to face its gradual downfall and suffered a number of defeats from the Sassanid monarchies. By the fourth century, the empire no longer existed.

The Arab Conquest

In 7th century after tough inter-tribal wars a town of Medina became the center of unity of Arab tribes. In no time the leaders of nomadic tribes united their forces and focused their attention on conquering of neighboring oases and cities. Victory after victory, Syria, Palestine and Iran were quickly invaded, by 651 the Arabs were already by Merv which was later taken over with no resistance. The main reason behind Arab victories was not their military superiority but rather the weakness of states conquered.

The first Arab to cross the Amudarya was Ubaydullah ibn Ziyad who was sent by Caliph Muaviya in 674. He besieged and conquered Paykent, beat rulers of Bukhara in a fierce battle as a result of which Bukhara was plundered by Arabs leaving many people homeless and turned to slaves. The governors of neighboring Sogd, Kesh, Nasaf united to help Bukhara against invaders but, as Narshahi wrote, Sogd soldiers were so impressed by the size and power of Arab army as to flee the battlefield. Another Arab historian Belazuri wrote that all people who participated in resistance against Arabs and survived in Bukhara were turned to slaves. Freedomloving people of Bukhara could not resign themselves to Arab rule. They attacked the castle of Seid ibn Osman and killed him.

In 704 Kutaiba ibn Muslim was appointed as a governor of Khorasan, who has led the all-out invasion of Maveraunnakhr, that is all the land on the right bank of Amudarya. While in 705-706 he conquered Balh, Paykent. He met strong resistance by Sogdians and Turks led by Bagdice Nizak Tarhan who has managed to make Arabs to retreat. The year 709 was the turning point for the Arab conquest. The much-acclaimed Tarhan was killed and Bukhara was again taken without much fight. Soon after Shoumen, Nasaf and Kesh were also brought to control. Arabs were moving in closer to the heart of Sogd -Samarkand and it seemed that Samarkand would be the next target on Kutaiba's agenda diverting much of the forces and delayed the fall of Samarkand for two more years.

In 711 Kutaiba restored the ruler of Khorezm to power thus making him vassal of Caliphate. The siege of Samarkand began in 712. The governor of Samarkand Gurek was able to deliver Arabs much pain and inflict considerable damage. Despite all these effort the city of Samarkand fell under Arab control thanks to the wall-destroying equipment. After much resistance the world famous city was conquered. A huge levy was imposed on the people of the city. Meanwhile, Kutaiba continued with his mission and took Khojent, Ferghana, Shash. In 715 after the death of Caliph Walid, his own soldiers killed Kutaiba when he attempted a plot against the new Caliph.

The Samanids Dynasty

In early ninth century Asad ibn Saman with his sons stood out among many local dynasties and increased his influence by helping Arabs to clamp down on rebels led by Rofe ibn Lays. Their forefather Saman came from one of the rich families of Ferghana. In return for their service under the orders of Caliph al- Mahmur governor of Horasan Gassan ibn Abbas appointed the sons of Asad as governors of important cities.

Nuh was given Samarkand, Ahmad - Ferghana, Yahya-Shash and Usturshona, Ilyas -Herat. The head of family was Nuh, after his death - Ahmed ibn Asad. During Ahmed's rule Samanids gained full autonomy from the Arab Caliphate and Tahirids -another local dynasty. Ahmed united all the cities and territories under his brothers' control and formed a big state. His son Nasr, who ruled Samarkand, continued Ahmed's policy of self-rule. In recognition of Nasr's independence the Caliph Mutadim accepted Nasr's sovereignty over Maveraunnakhr with the capital in Samarkand. In 892 Ismail - Nasr's brother, became the Amir of Maveraunnakhr. He was given Bukhara in 874. In the year 900 Ismail won a decisive battle against Saffarids (another local dynasty).

Later Khorasan, Seyistan were incorporated into Samanids state. Till 999 Khorasan was retained under Samanids rule. His son Ahmed (907-914) succeeded Ismail. During the reign of Nasr II (914-943) the teachings of Karmad spread all over the country against which Nuh II (943-954) fought aggressively. During Samanids' reign in Maveraunnakhr the handcraft and culture prospered. Many majestic buildings were erected. International trade became important.

The Great Silk Road was revived and many cities were reconstructed. New weaving centers, pottery and carpentry centers developed. Inside the cities ever-present caravansaries, madrasah and mosques were built. The great scholars al-Khorezmi, Al-Ferghani, Al-Farabi, Ibn Sina, Beruni,Narshahi and many others also lived during that time. During the reign of Mansoor and Nuh (954-964) the state slowly but surely weakened. In 999 Karakhanids wrested away all the power from Samanids. The Samanids dynasty ceased to control Maveraunnakhr. The last representative of the dynasty Al-Muntasir was assassinated in 1005.

The State of Ephtalites

The state of the Ephtalites came into being on the territory of the Kushan Empire after its decline. The majority of the population engaged in agriculture. The rest led a nomadic mode of life. The sources reveal information about the E. since 457 AD when their ruler Vahshunvar conquered Chaganian, Toharistan and Badahshan. The Sasanide king Peroz feared the growing expansion of the Ephtalites and started campaigns against them but was captured and appealed to Byzantium for help stating that nomadic invasions would be a threaten to it too. As a result, Peroz was set free for a ransom granted by the Byzantine emperor. Peroz promised the E. to give a frontier town Talkan but didn't keep to his promise and launched his second campaign, which also ended in a failure.

Abandoning his small son with the Ephtalites as a hostage he had paid a large tribute. In 484 Pervoz organized another campaign. This time he and his troops were tracked by the Ephtalites and fell dead. After crushing Peroz completely, the Ephtalites burdened Iran with a heavy contributions and occupied Merv, later the Kabul Valley, Pendiap, Karashar, Kucha, Kashgar and Khotan. So, they integrated Central Asia, Eastern Iran, Northern India, Eastern Turkestan into a single powerful empire. Under Peroz's son Kavad who spent his children by the E. court as a hostage, Iran was paying a tribute to the Ephtalites.

The Ephtalites actively participated in international trade through the Great Silk Route. They dealt with Iran, Byzantine, India, and China. The epic legends of the Ephtalites about Persian wars are contained in "Shah-name" That reflects a battle of the E. with the Turks in a story about an E. king Galferd. The academician V. Bartold supposes to see Gatferd as historical Katulf from Byzantine sources. Katulf out of spite injured to his wife by the king, escaped to Iran betraying his country to the Turks. Politically the Ephtalites created a single unified state bringing together many nations of various religious backgrounds. Zoroastrianism intertwined with local beliefs of Anahita, Sigarush, Mitra, and Buddhism.

The Turkic Khanate

In the middle 6th century Turkic tribes of Altai entered into alliance with neighboring tribes and established "the most powerful nomadic empire in the pre-Mongolian period". Two brothers Tumin and Istemi read a vast state formation. While Tumin expanded his dominions in the eastern Khanate, his brother Istemi engaged himself in the West of the country with unification of tribes of the area of Seven Rivers of Eastern Turkestan. A westward expansion made him approach the dominions of Ephtalites.

In 563-567 the Turks defended the Ephtalite Empire and collided with Sasanide Iran on the Amu-Darya. When the Turks and Iran had a common opponent as the Ephtalite, their relations were friendly natured. The King Hasrov Anushirran even married a Turkic queen. After the Turks defeated the Ephtalites there arose a conflict between them and Iran. The Turk's aspirations to own the most vital trade routes contributed to the tension in relations with Iran. The mission of Istemi to Iran on trade issues failed, and the second and last members of the mission were poisoned. Following that, the Turks launched a struggle against Iran in an alliance with Byzantium.

In 568-569 the first successful mission to Constantinople led by Maniah. The mutual struggle of Byzantium and Iran diverted their attention from the Khanate, which, in its turn, promoted a flourishing growth of semi-nomadic state of Turkic Khanate the Turks made several successful raids upon China once weakened by internal conflicts and achieved a big annual silk tribute.

In 588 a Turkic King Kara-churin in alliance with Byzantium and Hazars, attacked Iran but was defeated and killed by a Sasanide General Bahram-Chubin. This defeat served as an impetus for the true fall of the Khanate and its disintegration in the 80s of sixth century AD into eastern and western parts. In the first half of the 7th century AD the Western Khanate saw its rise. There was an up growth. Its frontiers reached the banks of the Ind River. The trade links with China and Iran prospered. The caravan route along Merr-Chardjuy-Buhara-Samarkand-Chach flourished.

The State of the Temur Dynasty (1405-1450)

During five years after Amir Temur's death the long dynastic war took place in Maveraunnakhr. In 1409 Temur's son Shahrukh (1376-1447) gained an upper hand over his brother Miranshakh's son Halil-Sultan and became the head of united state of the Temur Dynasty. But, in fact, it had already consisted of two states. Shahrukh ruled in Horasan with its center in Herat, and Shahrukh's son Mirzo Ulugbek (1394-1449) governed Maveraunnakhr. Both states consisted of small fiefdoms governed by Temur descendants.

Many of them aspired "for the larger portion of the cake" pretended on the larger part. Shahrukhs grandson, Sultan-Muhammad, who was appointed to rule Iran, began to demonstrate such level of independence that Shahrukh had to establish the order with the help of his army. Ulugbek was conducting an independent external policy. He was alertly following the situation in the Lower Syrdarya, from where the Uzbeks of Dashti-Kipchak were raging attacks at Khorezm. In 1419 he supported Barak and helped him to become the Khan of the nomadic Uzbeks.

In Mongolia after long discords Shirmuhammad secured victory, but he made it with the help of Mirzo Ulugbek. But soon Ulugbek had to struggle with his protegees (those who were appointed by him). In 1425 Ulugbek crashed the Moguls. In 1427 after the relations with Barak had been spoiled, Ulugbek went to Lower Syrdarya and was defeated. After Shakhrukhs's death in 1447 Ulugbek made an attempt to conquer Herat and Horasan, but failed. In 1448 Ulugbek with his son Abdullatif tried again to conquer Herat, and this time being the successful.

However, he couldn't conquer Horasan because of the riot of rulers of Horasan and incursions of nomadic Uzbeks led by Abulkhairkhan to Maveraunnakhr. In 1449 Abdullatif got to intrigue against his father, which has ended with Ulugbek's death. Abdullatif became the ruler, but he was killed in May 1450. Abdulla, who did try to revive Ulugbek's policy, took the power.

The State of the Temur Dynasty (1451-1507)

In counterweight to Abdulla, who was supported by Turks, the Emirs of Bukhara, supported by Nakshbandiya movement by Hoja Akhror, promoted their own claimant to the throne. It was Abu-Sayid (1451-1468), Miranshakh's grandchild, who was the son of Amir Temur. Abu-Sayid attracted at his side the khan of nomadic Uzbeks - Abulhair. In the summer of 1451 not far from Samarkand the great battle occurred.

The nomadic Uzbeks won, Abdulla was killed. Abu-Sayid seized power over Samarkand and Maveraunnakhr. Hoja Akhror became his closest counselor. Abu-Sayid failed in securing Horasan, because Abul-Kasim Bobur had possessed the throne of Herat since 1452 till 1457. Relations between two governors were hostile. In 1457 Abu-Sayid seized the throne of Herat, temporarily uniting two states.

But another Temur descendant - Sultan Husein Boikaro, Omar-sheikh's great-grandson, who was the son of Amir Temur - tried to gain power in Herat. In 1468 Abu-Sayid went to conquer Iran and didn't come back. Sultan Husein (1469-1506) used the situation and seized the power. Abu-Sayid's sons declined from struggle for the throne and went to Maveraunnakhr. In the second half of the 15th century there was the period of political split in Maveraunnakhr. From 1469 to 1494 Sultan Ahmed, Abu-Sayid's son, ruled in Samarkand (the power in fact was in the hands of Hoja Akhror and Nakshbandiya religious teaching), Sultan Ali-mirza - in Bukhara, Zakhiriddin Muhammad Bobur - in Ferghana. It was Bobur who made the fierce resistance against the invasion of nomadic Uzbeks led by Sheibany-khan.

In 1497 the Andijan army headed by Bobur took over Samarkand. In spring 1501 Bobur failed in battle with Sheibany-khan on the Kuhak River. Bobur had to go to Kabul. From 1501 till 1506 Sheibany-khan conquered Samarkand, Tashkent, Kyat and Buldumsaz, Urgench, and Balh. Meanwhile, weak Sultan-Husein couldn't make a serious resistance against Sheibany-khan. Only after Sheibany-khan had seized Horezm, Sultan-Husein decided to set out, but soon he died. In Herat his sons Badi az-Zamin and Muzaffar Husein - where appointed as successors. The discord between them only accelerated the fall of Herat. In 1507 Sheibany-khan conquered Herat.

Khanate of Kokand

In the beginning of the 18th century, as a result of political crisis of the Ashtarkhanids, Ferghana declared itself independent from Bukhara. Thus there emerged a new, independent state with its center in Kokand, where, at first, governed the hojas and then the khans of the Ming dynasty. It included Namangan, Kokand, Andijan and Marghilan provinces. The first ruler to be announced was Shahruhbiy from an Uzbek tribe called Ming. In 1721-1722 Shahruh was murdered as a result of the tension among various groups of Emirs. His heir was his son Abdurahimbiy, who conquered Hojent and Andijan, as well as Samarkand, Kattakurgan and Jizzakh. In the time of his brother Abdukarim's rule Osh was seized. The following 20 years were famous for the frequent change of rulers. In 1770 the Kokand elite announced Norbuta the ruler. He managed to suppress the separatist tendency of Chust, Namangan and Hojent.

Norbutabiy sent his troops to Tashkent yet couldn't conquer it. The rule of Narbutabiy established the relative political stability, which had a positive impact on the development of economy. The irrigation system was improved and new madrasah were built, including the Madrasah Mir. His son Alimbek (1800-1809) replaced Narbuta. During his rule the political significant of Kokand rose. Alimhan established army with troops of mountainous Tajiks. These troops were his support in the struggle for the centralization of power. He conquered Tashkent and Fergana, made numerous assaults on Ura-Tube. As a result of conspiracy, Alimhan was murdered. His brother, Omarhan, was crowned. He made a deal with Haydar, Bukhara's amir and conquered the land of Kazakhs up to the Syrdarya. On the crossroads of Tashkent, Bukhara and Khiva he built Okmachit. Omarkhan was titled as the "ruler of believers"-"Amir ul-muslimim" and introduced coins with his name on them. He established the same administrative system as it existed in Bukhara. Omarkhan's heir was his 12-year-old son Muhammad-Ali (Madali) (1822-1842). Madali commenced his rule eliminating people he didn't like. Some people flattered and called him "gazi" (fighter for faith).

The Bukhara Emirate

After the death of Rakhimbiy in 1758 the Mangyts replaced as emir his uncle Miankal Daniyarbiy (1758-85). But he didn't succeed to maintain a strong central power. For several decades there extended mutual factions and confrontations between followers and opponents of the Mangyts, regional ruler claimed for independence. In 1784 town dwellers launched an uprising taking the advantage of weakness of Daniyarbiy with the latter ceding power to his son Shahmurad (1785-1800). The first innovation was that he eliminated two officials - Davlat Kushbegi and Nizamuddin Kazikalon assassinating them before the eyes of the court. Then Shahmurad solemnly presented the dwellers of Bukhara the certificates (Tehran) exempting from a number of taxes.

The text of the certificate was engraved on the stone and fixed to a porch of a mosque. Instead he instituted a new tax "jul" for keeping troops in case of war. Concentrating power in his hands, he renounced the title of the khan, remaining as emir. In the mid 18th century Shahmurad initiated financial reforms with coining equal-valued coins 0.7 miscals (3.36 grams), also unified golden coins. He personally led a justice ministry. Shahmurad returned the left coast of the Amudarya, Balh, Merv to the Bukhara emirate. In 1786 he suppressed an apprising in Kermin district, then made successful campaigns to Shahn-Saby and Hojent. Shakhmurad successfully waged wars with Timurshah, an Afgan ruler, thus managing to retain southern Turkestan populated by Uzbeks and Tajiks. When Emir Haydar (1800-26) assumed power earlier retained by his father, the whole Maveraunnakhr was captured. Mass disorders and revolts accompanied Haydar's succession to the throne. In 1800 the Turkmen of Merv rose. Later the war started with Kokand for the territorial area known as Uratepa, which Haydar was able to retain. Under him the political system was a centralized monarchy, which later developed onto absolutism. He had a bureaucratic apparatus of four thousand staff members. The army increased. Only in Bukhara there was 12 thousand of the standing army. According to Akhmad Donish, the "the rule of Emir Haydar could be characterized as a time of endless feudal wars, which were raged every three to six months". The heir to Haydar was his son Nasrullah (1826-1860). In a bid to clear up the path towards power, his older brothers Husein and Omar were killed. With the help of the troops and alliance with the clergy, Nasrullah led a cruel struggle to tame the nobility. During the first month of his rule he executed daily 50-100 men. The rule of Nasrullah was accompanied by endless wars with Khiva and Kokand khanates for particular frontier territories - Merv, Charjoy, Uratupe, and Khojent. Only in 1853 after military campaigns they were subjugated to Bukhara.

Uzbekistan in the 20th - 40th of the XX century

In 1924 Uzbekistan as one of the republics joined the former USSR. In March 1927 the first Constitution of Uzbekistan was adopted. During this period the final role and decision - making were the priority of inter-republican management bodies for developing national economy and the culture of Central Asian republics: Central Asian Economic Council (in 1923), Central Asian water resource management, Central Asian State Planning and etc. In a short period of time hard consequences of Civil War were eliminated. The industry was developing rapidly. The great changes have been taken in engineering industry, metal - working industry and Power branches. During the period from 1928 to 1942 515 enterprises and electric power stations were launched among which are Chirchik city electrochemical plant, Tashselmash, Kuvasay city cement and lime works, Tashkent city textile industrial complex, and others. In 1925 - 1929 the land - water use reform was carried out.

The agriculture and irrigation sectors were on the rise with new canals and reservoirs being reconstructed. In the country the literacy of the population was 95% by the end of 1941. The State University of Turkestan (1920) became prominent center of higher education. There a number of scientific - research institutions were functioning which placed more than 1000 researches to the end of 20th. Tashkent was declared capital of Uzbekistan SSR in 1930. A new UzSSR Constitution was adopted in 1937. According to the Constitution the elections were held for the republican bodies of power led Yu. Akhunbabaev and Fayzulla Khojaev. The entire life in the republic went on under the increasing cult of personality of Stalin and strengthening totalitarian management methods. The mass repression of outstanding party members and statesmen. The bodies of political administration have trumped - up criminal cases regarding F.Khodjaev, A.Ikramov, D.Manjari and the others. Dozens of people, including leaders of Uzbekistan Communist Party S.Baltabaev, I.Khudaykulov, A.Tsekher, M.Shermukhamedov. M.Usmanov, and others were arrested in August - September. In spring of 1938 more than 60 percent party secretaries such as obkoms (regional party committee), gorkoms (city party committee) and raikoms (district party committee) were subjected to purges.

Uzbekistan during the World War II (1941 - 1945)

On June 22, 1941 Germany in violation of the non-aggression pact suddenly attacked the USSR. On June 23 many thousand demonstrations were held in Tashkent, where the citizens expressed their readiness to do all their best at home for the front and for the sake of the victory. In the first months of war 32,000 requests for sending to the front battlefields were submitted. In November 1941 it 14 national brigades: 9 infantries and 5 cavalries groups were formed. In 1941 - 1943 Uzbekistan received and placed 1 million refugees, evacuated because of military operations in Russia, Ukraine and Byelorussia. Among them 200, 000 were children. War conditions required urgent measures for strengthening the home front. More than one hundred industrial enterprises were moved to Uzbekistan: Leningrad factory for textile machinery, Rostselmash, "Krasniy Aksay" Stalingrad Chemical plant, Moscow factories "Podemnik", "Elektrostanok", and many others. By the end of 1941 more than 50 evacuated enterprises were put into operation. In the middle of 1942 all enterprises relocated to Uzbekistan were operated in full power for supplying military machines, ammunitions and munitions. From the very beginning of war the republican industrial enterprises were reorganized for producing goods for the defense. Tashselmash, steam - locomotive repair, Chirchik city electrochemical plant and the others were few of them. During 1941 - 1945 280 industrial enterprises were put in operation. In 1943 the specific gravity of enterprises in national economy has been taken to 75 percent. In autumn 1942 the construction of the metallurgical plant in Bekabad region has been launched. It was started the setting up of non-ferrous metallurgy on the basis of explored reserves of tungsten, molybdenum and copper. Also, the Almalyk copper ore deposit was put into operation. From 1940 till 1943 because of constructing of new electric power stations the power production increased 3, 5 times. During 1941 - 1945 there were put in operation 280 Industrial enterprises representing all branches of industry. Uzbekistan became one of the leading arsenals of the country. More than two thousands planes, 1,7 thousand aircraft engines and mortars, 22 million mines, 560 thousand shells, about millions of grenades, 330 thousand parachutes, 5 armed trains, more than 100 thousand km. of different wires were sent. There were relocated 22 scientific- research institutions, 16 institutes of higher education, 2 libraries. On November 1943 the inauguration of Academy of Science was held. T.N.Kari-Niyazov was elected as the first president. By late 1944 22 scientific institutions were the part of Academy of Science. 41 institutes of Higher education including 12 evacuated ones and 51 secondary education institutions functioned in 1943. More than 20,000 specialists were trained during the war at those institutions. About one million citizens of Uzbekistan fought in front lines. Tens of national force units were created. Many of them were awarded with orders and military rank of guardsmen. The soldiers of Uzbekistan took part in defense of Brest fortress, cities of Kiev, Smolensk, Odessa, Sevastopol, and so on. (D.Abdullaev, T.Aliev, Isaev, Yusupov, F.Laenkov, U.Ataev and other).

Uzbekistan in post-war period (1945 - 1991)

In post-war period there were continued the development process of diversified industries with deployed transport and power systems. The cities became a scientific and culture canters. The new Grand Academic Theater of Uzbekistan was established in 1947. A few years later the theater of opera and ballet has been opened in the city of Samarkand. The agriculture sector was mechanized. In 1984 more than 4,175 hectares of sown areas were assimilated, 2,056 thousand hectares of which were given for cotton fields. The leadership in post-war period included U.Yusupov, A.Niyazov, N.Mukhitdinov, Sh.Rashidov. During the 80s the USSR faced the political and ideological crisis. It turned out that the centrifugal forces were powerful resulting in the end of dissolution of the former Soviet Union and breaking up to newly independent states in the vast area.